Both Popes Paul V and Urban VIII condemned Galileo’s theory in defense of the Copernician system against the Ptolemaic. Likewise when Pope Pius VII, in restoring the Jesuits, contradicted Pope Clement XIV who suppressed them.
Not only did no pope for 1400 years ever claim this privilege (infallibility) but many councils like those of Constance (1414-18) and Basel (1431-47) denied emphatically the superiority of the pope over the general council. They affirmed that it was the council and not any single man who was the representative of the body of universal believers. Febronius (1701-90) also a Roman Bishop more radically than others maintained that the power of the keys was lodged in the whole assembly of the faithful. He also affirmed that the Holy See was not superior to that of the rest of the bishops as a body or general council, and that it is the duty of the bishops to restrain the activity of the Holy See (A Catholic Dictionary, pg 202)
Among the Roman Catholic lists, there does not seem to be agreement on either succession or length of office.
Pope Victor (190-202) while in a previous decree approved the heresy of the Montanists yet in another one condemned them.
Pope Marcellinus (292-303) was a public idolater, entering the temple of Vesta and offering incense to the goddess.
Pope Liberius (352-366) approved of the condemnation of Bishop Athanasius, the opponent of the Arians and he himself subscribed a Semi-Arian profession of faith in order to be called back from exile and restored the see.
Pope Gelasius (492-96) made a dictum concerning the Lords Supper, which is in striking contrast to that made by Trent and was contrary to any decree of transubstantiation.
Pope Gregory I (590-604) called Anti-Christ any who take the title of Universal Bishop, while Boniface III (607-8) obtained such a title from the parricide emperor Phocas for himself and his successors. The same Gregory forbade any priest to celebrate mass alone, however the Council of Trent in the canon 8, sess. 22, declared in open contradiction that priests may celebrate mass alone. However they could not decide what was to be done with the Phrase, “the Lord be with you” and who was to reply?
Pope Honorius (625-38) adhered to the heresy of Monotheism and was later for this reason anathematized in the sixth ecumenical council (3 Constantinople, 680-1)
Pope Hadrian (867-72) declared civil marriages to be legitimate while Pope Pius VII (1823) condemned them as invalid.
Pope Sixtus V (1585-90) published an edition of the Bible and recommended its reading in a bull (the most solemn and weighty form of papal letter) and Pope Pius VII condemned the reading of it.
Pope Pius XII after having promulgated two infallible pronouncements in the field of morals, one on the question of the Rotary Club on January 11, 1951 and the other on birth control on October 29, 1951 had to retract them because of the unfavorable reaction stirred up at the hand of the American Roman Catholic clergy and laity.