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Between 1780 and 1844, nineteenth-century British Christians founded at least 223 national religious, moral, educational, and philanthropic institutions and societies to alleviate child abuse, poverty, illiteracy, and other social ills. Among the religious and benevolent societies for impoverished or exploited women were

 Forlorn Females Fund of Mercy;

 Maritime Female Penitent Refuge for Poor, Degraded Females;

 Society for Returning Young Women to Their Friends in the Country;

 Friendly Female Society for the Relief of Poor, Infirm, Aged Widows, and Single Women of Good Character Who Have Seen Better Days.